Music expresses feeling and thought, without language; it was below and before speech, and it is above and beyond all words.

Lessons In Hindustani Vocal Music


A student of Indian classical music always begins with sargams (alankar), which are ascending and descending sequences of notes in an easily repeatable pattern. These are an essential part of one’s voice training and a prerequisite to improvising a Raga in both vocal and instrumental music.

(Key: Bold denotes higher octave; Komal (soft) notes are underlined)

Some popular sargams are as follows:

Sargam 1

  • Aroh:  Sa  Re  Ga  Ma  Pa  Dha  Ni  Sa
  • Avroh:  Sa  Ni  Dha  Pa  Ma  Ga  Re  Sa

Sargam 2

  • Aroh: SaSa  ReRe  GaGa  MaMa  PaPa  DhaDha  NiNi  SaSa
  • Avroh:  SaSa NiNi  DhaDha  PaPa  MaMa  GaGa  ReRe  SaSa

Sargam 3

  • Aroh:  SaReSa  ReGaRe  GaMaGa  MaPaMa  PaDhaPa  DhaNiDha  NiSaNi  SaReSa
  • Avroh:  SaReSa NiSaNi  DhaNiDha  PaDhaPa  MaPaMa  GaMaGa  ReGaRe  SaReSa

Sargam 4

  • Aroh: SaReGa  ReGaMa  GaMaPa  MaPaDha  PaDhaNi  DhaNiSa
  • Avroh:  SaNiDha  NiDhaPa  DhaPaMa  PaMaGa  MaGaRe  GaReSa

Sargam 5

  • Aroh:  SaReGaMa  ReGaMaPa  GaMaPaDha  MaPaDhaNi  PaDhaNiSa
  • Avroh:  SaNiDhaPa  NiDhaPaMa  DhaPaMaGa  PaMaGaRe  MaGaReSa

Sargam 6

  • Aroh:  SaGa  ReMa  GaPa  MaDha  PaNi  DhaSa
  • Avroh:  SaDha  NiPa  DhaMa  PaGa  MaRe  GaSa

Sargam 7

  • Aroh:  SaMa RePa GaDha MaNi PaSa
  • Avroh: SaPa NiMa DhaGa PaRe MaSa

Sargam 8

  • Aroh:   SaReSaReGa   ReGaReGaMa   GaMaGaMaPa
  • MaPaMaPaDha   PaDhaPaDhaNi   DhaNiDhaNiSa
  • Avroh:   SaNiSaNiDha   NiDhaNiDhaPa   DhaPaDhaPaMa
  •   PaMaPaMaGa   MaGaMaGaRe   GaReGaReSa

Sargam 9

  • Aroh:  Sa – SaReSa – SaReGaReSa – SaReGaMaGaReSa – SaReGaMaPaMaGaReSa –  SaReGaMaPaDhaPaMaGaReSa – SaReGaMaPaDhaNiDhaPaMaGaReSa – SaReGaMaPaDhaNiSa.NiDhaPaMaGaReSa
  • Avroh:  Sa. – Sa.NiSa. – Sa.NiDhaNiSa. – Sa.NiDhaPaDhaNiSa. – Sa.NiDhaPaMaPaDhaNiSa. –  Sa.NiDhaPaMaGaMaPaDhaNiSa. – Sa.NiDhaPaMaGaReGaMaPaDhaNiSa. – Sa.NiDhaPaMaGaReSaReGaMaPaDhaNiSa.

Sargam 10

  • Aroh: SaReGaGaReGaReSa – ReGaMaMaGaMaGaRe – GaMaPaPaMaPaMaGa – MaPaDhaDhaPaDhaPaMa – PaDhaNiNiDhaNiDhaPa – DhaNiSaSaNiSaNiDha
  • Avroh:  DhaNiSaSaNiSaNiDha –  PaDhaNiNiDhaNiDhaPa –  MaPaDhaDhaPaDhaPaMa –  GaMaPaPaMaPaMaGa –  ReGaMaMaGaMaGaRe –  SaReGaGaReGaReSa

These sequences can be easily converted into sargams for other thaats. For thaat Bhairavi, you can replace all shuddha swara to komal. As an example, Sargam 4 in Bhairavi will become

  • Aroh:  SaReGa ReGaMa  GaMaPa  MaPaDha PaDhaNi DhaNiSa
  • Avroh:  SaNiDha NiDhaPa  DhaPaMa  PaMaGa MaGaRe GaReSa

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This entry was posted on March 12, 2013 by in Uncategorized.


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